Conflict of Interest

We recently received an inquiry about whether an author had not indicated s/he had a conflict of interest when such a conflict existed. Our first inclination was, “No conflict of interest” because the author had nothing to financially gain from the material presented in the article. However, in talking with our publisher (SAGE) and others, it became apparent that conflict of interest is not restricted to financial rewards. So…here is the question for discussion: If one is publishing research about a measurement instrument one has developed, a theoretical model one has proposed, or curriculum one has created, should one indicate a conflict of interest? Are there additional circumstances that would warrant indicating a conflict of interest?